In-Service Teachers Self-Efficacy toward the Inclusion of the Learners with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms

  • Syeda Beenish Batool University of Education,Lahore
  • Fauzia Khawaja University of Management and Technology, Lahore.


Pakistan is still in the lowest development rank in the whole world despite so many efforts in the field of educational development. One of the factors identified for this low ranking is the inequitable learning environment caused by the lack of teachers’ training. Hence, the training of teachers is considered a key aspect for the inclusion of diverse learners in general education settings. Teachers’ self-efficacy plays a fundamental role that affects their practices in inclusive classrooms. In order to make inclusive education successful, we need to work on improving the self-efficacy of educators through training. The aims of the research were to investigate the school teachers' self-efficacy with respect to the inclusion of children with disabilities in a regular classroom and determine the impact of in-service teachers’ characteristics like gender, age, and professional qualification on their self-efficacy. A quantitative design comprising 130 female and 170 male teachers from general schools in the Lahore district was used. An adapted questionnaire was used for data collection. The findings revealed that in-service teachers have higher self-efficacy toward classroom management for inclusion as compared to the other factors of the subscales which include instructional strategies, students’ engagement, assessment practices, and collaboration. Findings show no significant difference between male and female teachers’ self-efficacy toward the inclusion of the learners with disabilities. Two variables: age and professional qualification, were found to relate significantly to teacher self-efficacy. This study suggests professional training programs for in-service and pre-service teachers to enhance male and female teachers’ self-efficacy for the inclusion of learners with disabilities.

Keywords: In-service teachers, self-efficacy, Inclusive education, general education school, learners with disabilities

Author Biographies

Syeda Beenish Batool, University of Education,Lahore

Lecturer in Special Education

Division of Education, University of Education, Lahore.

Fauzia Khawaja, University of Management and Technology, Lahore.

Professor of Education